Igneous rocks are formed when magma (molten rocks) or lava (molten rocks that burst through the earth’s surface) cools and solidifies after being exposed to air or water. The majority of these rocks are crystalline in nature. A few examples of igneous rocks include granite, basalt, and pumice, among others.
Sedimentary rocks are formed as a result of the aggregation and deposition of other pre-existing rocks, as well as minute fragments of animal remains, which get firmly embedded at the bottom of bodies of water. The structure of these rocks is a jumble of fragments. Sandstone, chalk, and coal are all sedimentary rocks, and they all have different properties.
As a result of heat and pressure, metamorphic rocks are created when previously existing rocks undergo chemical and solid-state changes as a result of heat and pressure. These rocks are very hard and may seem to be foliated on close inspection. Marble, quartzite, phyllite, and other metamorphic rocks are examples of metamorphic rocks.
Igneous Vs. Sedimentary Vs. Metamorphic Rocks
For example, the differences between igneous and sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks are found in the rocks’ origin and production; their texture; their categorization; and so on.
What are Igneous Rocks?
It is igneous rocks that are generated when molten material cools and solidifies, resulting in the formation of crystalline material. Because these rocks are formed from liquid (as opposed to sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, which are formed from pre-existing rocks), they are referred to as ‘primary’ rocks in the scientific community.
Due to the fact that igneous rocks constitute 95 percent of the top layer of the earth’s crust, they are numerous. In addition, there are over 700 distinct types of these rocks to choose from. Granite is the most well-known of these igneous rocks, and it is used to make the vast majority of kitchen worktops.
What are Sedimentary Rocks?
Sedimentary rocks are formed by the weathering, transport, deposition, compaction, and cementation of pre-existing rocks and pieces of once-living animals. Sedimentary rocks are formed by the weathering, transport, deposition, compaction, and cementation of pre-existing rocks and pieces of once-living animals. These rocks are created at the bottom of water bodies such as seas and rivers over millions of years and are known as igneous rocks.
Depending on their chemical composition, sedimentary rocks may be divided into three types: clastic, organic, and chemically precipitated. Clastic sedimentary rocks are those that are formed as a result of the mechanical weathering of pre-existing rocks, and they are classified as such.
Organoclastic sedimentary rocks are those that have formed as a result of the accumulation and deposition of the remnants of deceased plants and animals. When two minerals contained in rocks come into contact with one other, a chemical reaction may occur. When the temperature is lowered, these minerals precipitate and form chemical sedimentary rocks.
What are Metamorphic Rocks?
As a result of changes in temperature and pressure, previously existing rocks undergo physical and chemical changes, which result in the formation of metamorphic rocks. In order to produce new rocks, the rocks are subjected to temperatures in excess of 150 degrees Celsius and pressures in excess of 1500 bar.
Metamorphic rocks may be divided into two types: foliated rocks and non-foliated rocks. Foliated rocks are those that have been foliated. Foliated rocks are ones that have a structure made up of thin layers, while non-foliated rocks are those that do not have this kind of structure.
The majority of the earth’s crust is made up of metamorphic rocks. It is a kind of rock that may be found in abundance. Interestingly, since the Taj Mahal is completely composed of marble, the monument may be thought of as a single massive metamorphic rock.
Difference between igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks
Igneous rocks are generated when molten material cools and hardens into a rock. On the contrary, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are formed as a result of the breakdown of previously existing rocks.
Igneous rocks have a crystalline structure, while sedimentary rocks are fragmented and stratified, and metamorphic rocks are either foliated or non-foliated, depending on their age.
In addition, igneous rocks account for 95% of the top layer of the earth’s crust, with the remaining 5% made up of various rocks and minerals (see Figure 3).
Compared to igneous rocks, which may be found deep under the earth’s crust or mantle, and sedimentary rocks, which can be found at the bottom of bodies of water, metamorphic rocks can be found closer to the earth’s surface.
Granite, the most well-known igneous rock on the planet, is employed in the construction of kitchen countertops. Rock salt is a sedimentary rock that is used in a variety of applications across the globe. Marble, for example, is a metamorphic rock that is utilized in the construction of houses and structures.
The genesis, texture, structure, and other characteristics of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks may readily distinguish them from one another. It is possible that the three kinds of rocks are the same mineral or sediment that is passing through the rock cycle.
For example, an igneous rock may undergo the processes of weathering and cementation to transform into sedimentary rock after being formed. If exposed to variations in temperature and pressure, this rock may undergo additional transformation into a metamorphic rock.