Difference between Logical and Physical Database Models

Difference between Logical and Physical Database Models

A Database Model describes how data can be stored, manipulated, and organized. It helps to define what would be that database’s logical structure. The Relational Model is a common type of Database model. It consists of a table format. There are many types of database models, including Network, Object, and Document. It also includes Physical and Logical Database Models.

Logical Model Vs. Physical Model

The Logical Database Model differs from the Physical Database Model in that it is used to collect information about businesses and determine their needs. A Physical database Model is used to design the Database. A logical Database can be implemented in any type of database software. While a Physical Database is a specific software and hardware that can only be used for a single purpose, it can also be implemented in other types of database software.

A logical database is also known as a Logical Data Model or Logical Schema. It is a typical data model. It is used most often in business processes. It is often represented by diagrams. After the approval of the logical model, it can be used as the basis for a physical database model. It attempts to make understand the data through the model. However, it does not implement it. You can create the logical Database model independently of DBMS.

The Physical Database Model is the model that is implemented in the Database Management System (DBMS). The design represents the model or data. It is derived using the Logical Database. The Physical Database Model includes all artifacts required to establish relationships between tables or accomplish goals such as definitions, linking tables and partitioned or clustered tables, indexes, constraints, or even creating new tables.

What is a Logical Database Model?

The logical Database Model collects information about business requirements. It doesn’t focus on database design. The logical database Model collects information about business entities, business units, and business processes. Diagrams are the most common representation. Its structures are abstract, which indicates the information domain. It is much simpler than the physical Database Model.

Because they are so closely connected, sometimes the Logical model is used interchangeably with the Domain model. Both have the same goal. They are both concerned with the capture of data, domains, and not the structure. ANSI introduced the logical database Model in 1975. This logical schema was not supported by any software at the time. The logical model was both hierarchical and it was networked.

The Logical Database model was followed by an object-oriented approach, which allows data to be described in terms of classes, attributes, and associations. Without the need for a DBMS, the logical Database can be created independently. It can be represented by platforms such as DIV-2 Viewpoint or OV-7 View. As a software program, the logical Database can be used in any type of Database. Logical Data models are usually created by Data Architects and Business analysts.

What is a Physical Database Model?

Typically, the Physical Model, Schema, is also used for data management. It shows and explains the data storage and represented using DBMS. This is where the design is used to illustrate the project’s lifecycle. You can also reverse engineer it from a database. It is usually derived from the Logical Model of a database. It is based on hardware and software specifications and includes constraints and indexes.

There are seven types available on the market: Sybase, SQL Server, and Sybase. SQL, for example, will not run on Windows operating system by Microsoft. This model is used for generating the schema. This model also models the database column keys and indexes as well as triggers, constraints, etc.

Based on your requirements, modification to the Physical Model is possible. Database administrators and developers create Physical Schema. For its development, it requires DBMS and RDBMS systems. Comparing it to the logical database model, it is much more complicated. All information in the physical schema can be converted into business and relational models. It is made up of columns and tables based on the information in the logical model.

Difference between Logical and Physical Database Models

  • The logical Database Model is a description of data, not how they are implemented.
  • The Physical Database Model shows data that will be implemented.
  • Business analysts and data architects create logical database models.
  • Database Administrators and Developers create physical databases models.
  • The logical Database Model is easier than the Physical Database Model.
  • The Logical Database Model is more complex than the physical Model.
  • The logical Database Model is a bunch of technical structures and a technical map that outlines the rules.
  • The objective of the Physical Model is to implement a Database.
  • Logical Database modeling also has Business Process Diagrams and ERD.
  • Physical Database Model modeling includes Database design server model diagram, documentation, etc.


Visualizing the Database can be done visually using both the Logical or Physical database models. Both models are essential for business purposes and are well-known for meeting the requirements of businesses. They are an integral part of the database management software. Logical is more concerned about the definition of data than it is with its implementation. Physical, on the other hand, is more concerned about designing and implementing data.

A logical model is used to create a Physical Model. Logical can be created independently. For the development of a physical database, DBMS and RDBMS are required. As it is software, the logical Database can be used in any type of Database. The physical Database is hardware specifications with software constraints, and it has indexes and constraints.